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In 1964, Duvalier declared himself President-for-Life. He fired the chief of the military and established a Presidential Guard to maintain his power. He also established the (National Security Volunteers), commonly referred to as the Tonton Makout The Tonton Makouts became Haiti's secret police Corruption was endemic, and he stole money from government agencies to reward officials loyal to him.Duvalier also exploited popular vodou beliefs, creating a cult of personality surrounding himself, claiming to be a houngan (a sorcerer).